Kypros Nicolaides was born in 1953 in Paphos, Cyprus. He studied Medicine at King’s College School of Medicine and Dentistry in London and soon after graduation joined the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 1980.

Nicolaides became director of the Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, the first fetal medicine unit in the United Kingdom. He began a programme of research and teaching which made King's College Hospital an important center of fetal medicine activities for thousands of visiting doctors.

Nicolaides discarded the fetoscope and pursued all blood sampling procedures by taking blood from the placental cord insertion, popularising the term "cordocentesis". The technique was initially pioneered in France in 1983 by Fernand Daffos, but Nicolaides developed the single operator method and soon investigated many aspect of fetal physiology and pathophysiology such as fetal blood gases and acid-base status; correlations between fetal blood gases and Doppler; fetal metabolism, fetal endocrinology, fetal immunology, fetal hematology and fetal biochemistry in diabetic pregnancies. In 1992 Kypros teamed up with Yves Ville, a visiting doctor from France, to produce the first paper on endoscopic laser therapy for severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome.

Professor Nicolaides has contributed to over 500 journal articles and more than 30 books and monographs. In 1996 he established the Fetal Medicine Foundation which runs regular courses with an international panel of speakers and delegates attending from all round the world. He has established a Diploma in Fetal Medicine which had become the most important certification in fetal medicine in Europe and in other countries. 200 candidates from 46 countries take the Fetal Medicine Foundation Diploma examinations each year. A formidable teacher he is admired by his students and colleagues for his interllectual abilities and manual dexterity. In 1999, he was conferred the Ian Donald Gold Medal from the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.